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The HobbitHouse Ilustrated Glossary of Woodworking terms

JOINERY TERMS



This set of terms having to do with joints and joinery is extracted from the general glossary shown here: GLOSSARY
and links that are not local to this subset will put you back in the main glossary


for images of wood itself, go here: wood id site




adhesive joint --- (1) A joint that uses an adhesive instead of nails or screws. Compare/contrast to dry joint. In normal use, this term is used as synonymous with glue joint (a more-often used term) even if the adhesive is not glue.
adhesive joint --- (2) The location at which two objects are held together with a layer of adhesive.

adjustable dado blade --- The dado is one of the simplest and most widely used joints in woodworking and since it cannot be made with a single pass of a normal circular saw blade, special dado cutter blades have been developed. There are two fundamental types, the adjustable dado blade which is discussed here and the stacked head dado cutter which is discussed as its own term in this glossary. The adjustable dado blade is a slightly complicated device which consists of a circular saw blade that has an adjustable angle so that it wobbles by an adjustable amount and thus cuts a dado groove of whatever width is set; sometimes there is more than one blade, but the adjustable wobble is always part of the mechanism. This is a somewhat sloppy solution because it does not produce perfectly vertical groove walls nor does it produce a perfectly flat groove bottom although neither are off by any significant amount. There is one version, shown in the far left in the composite pic below, that is actually more like a stacked head dado with chippers plus adjustable shims so that it does not suffer the disadvantages of the more common adjustable dado blades. Also called a "wobbly head" dado cutter. Examples:



anchor piece --- When two pieces of wood are joined with a screw, the screw goes through one piece, which is called the "captive piece" and into the other, which is called the "anchor piece".

angled crossed full lap --- A full lap joint where the two planks meet at an angle other than 90 degrees and fully cross each other. Examples:



angled crossed half lap --- A half lap joint where the two planks meet at an angle other than 90 degrees and fully cross each other. Examples:



angled dovetailed full lap --- A dovetailed full lap joint where the mating piece comes into the cross piece at an angle other than 90 degrees. As shown in the examples below, the joint can be either half blind or through. Examples:



angled dovetailed half lap --- A dovetailed half lap joint where the mating piece comes into the cross piece at an angle other than 90 degrees. As shown in the examples below, the joint can be either half blind or through. Examples:



angled full lap --- A full lap joint where the pieces meet at an angle other than 90 degrees. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



angled half lap --- A half lap joint where the pieces meet at an angle other than 90 degrees. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



angled keyed dovetail full lap --- A keyed dovetail full lap joint where the mating planks meet each other at an angle other than 90 degrees. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Compare/contrast to angled dovetail full lap. Examples:



angled keyed dovetail half lap --- A keyed dovetail half lap joint where the mating planks meet each other at an angle other than 90 degrees. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Compare/contrast to angled dovetail half lap. Examples:



angled mortise and tenon --- A mortise and tenon joint that uses an angled tenon. See "angled tenon" for an illustration.

angled shoulder mortise and tenon --- A frame joint but with the two planks meeting at an obtuse angle, and a type of mortise and tenon joining the two. The joint can be done with a loose tenon as in the example below, or with a standard tenon coming off of the upper piece but complicated somewhat because of the angles involved. Such a joint could be used to make a picture frame shaped like a parallelogram, but a more likely example would be joining a banister with a newel post. Example:



angled tenon --- A tenon that projects out from the surrounding piece at an angle other than 90 degrees. Such tenons are used in a normal mortise and I have never seen reference to a joint where the mortise is angled. Certainly, you could make such a joint but apparently it is either non-existent or so rare that it is not discussed in joinery books. See also mortise and tenon joint. In the example below, the three posts are all 3" square and the stub tenons to the outer posts are 2" long but the tenons to the middle post are each 1.5" long and meet in the middle.



barefaced --- Describes a joint that has only one shoulder, such as the single shouldered sliding dovetail joint.

beaded inset face frame door --- see face frame door

bevel --- (1)[noun] The part of a tool which is ground to form the cutting edge.
bevel --- (2)[noun] A surface that meets another at an angle other that a right angle. See also chamfer
bevel --- (3)[verb] To cut edges or ends at an angle, but not a right angle. See also chamfer.

beveled lap scarf --- A lap scarf joint that has the added complication of the laps being angled like half-dovetails. I don''s just an effect of Google Sketchup) inside a 45 degree mitered corner. This biscuit provides only moderate extra holding power to prevent the two sides from pulling away from each other perpendicular to the glue joint, but it provides a large amount of extra shear strength to prevent the sides from sliding past each other parallel to the glue joint.



blind --- (1) As regards woodworking, this generally means "not going all the way through", so for example a finial with a mounting hole that goes half-way through the wood could be said to have a blind hole. The term "stopped" is synonymously.
blind --- (2) see blind joint

blind dado --- A dado joint (or cut) which does not go all the way from edge to edge but rather is only internal to the surface of the piece so that the edges are unbroken. If the dado cut does go through one edge but not the other, that''s in and the top of the tenon is visible. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. A half blind bridle joint is also called a stopped bridle joint, and the joint itself is also called an "open mortise and tenon joint" and it is also sometimes called a "slip joint" because the tenon just slips into the open mortise. A pinned version can be seen at doweled through bridle joint. If the cross piece goes over the vertical bar in both directions, it''s just that this would leave a noticeable crack at the door edge. Examples:



butt joint --- Most formal definitions give this as "A joint formed by abutting the squared edges of two pieces", which of course can mean any two edges, but this seems wrong to me, since the "butt" of a plank is the END, not the edge and in common usage, "butt joint" far more often agrees with my own sense that it means butting the ENDS of two planks. The phrase "to butt up against" is even more vague and can even encompass face to face "butting", so I consider this to be a vague term. Examples:



cabinet maker --- A skilled craftsman who specializes in making fine furniture including, but not limited to, cabinets. See also cabinetry. Compare/contrast to carpenter.

cabinetry --- The craft of making furniture (especially furniture of high quality including, but not limited to, cabinets) utilizing various woodworking skills including joinery. See also cabinet maker.

canted half blind dovetail --- When a drawer front is tilted (canted) backwards a little, as is the case in (for example) dressers that are wider at the bottom than at the top, some care needs to be taken in doing dovetails at the corners of the drawers, if dovetails are the joint of choice for the particular application. The problem is that if you make the dovetails based on the slanted edge of the drawer side, they will be easy to make with a standard jig, but they will be mechanically weaker than if you tilt them over a little. The reason for this is that in the "easy but weak" version the grain runs close, or even exactly, parallel to the lower surface of where the tail and pin meet, which means that the joinery adds no strength at that point, and the upper part of the tail/pin area presents an easy shear. Thus, the side could pull out, leaving behind the sheared off upper portion of each tail, with the lower portions of each tail having simply slid out. In the "difficult but strong" version, the upper portion of each tail could still shear off but it''s the term used with the joint where I found it, so I present it here. It is, at least in the example I found (and illustrated below) a double wedge (the term folding wedges is also used) put in the middle of a joint that is a slightly complex tabled scarf joint. For a knockdown joint the wedges can be left protruding slightly so that they can easily be tapped to remove them and disassemble the joint (which of course would not be glued). For a permanent joint, glue the wedges before tapping them into place, along with gluing the rest of the joint. This looks to me to be a very strong joint, but overly complex for most uses. Example:



compound miter cut --- A miter cut which is at an angle to both the edge and face of a board at the same time. The most common use of compound miters is with crown molding, but there are many other uses as well. Here is an example of a compound miter. In this particular example, the board has been crosscut at 45 degrees to the length and also cut at 45 degrees to the face:



compound miter joint --- Any joint that makes use of a compound miter cut. The most common uses of this cut are in crown molding and in the construction of "boxes" that have more than 4 sides and are tapered (very common in planters, for example). Here''s what the compound miter saw can do. It is available in both AC powered and battery powered versions. Examples:



conversion joint --- An outlined joint that converts a dado joint to/from a boxed joint. This is never done for structural reasons, only for decoration. It is done by putting an extra wide and extra deep box or dado joint at the end of a plank, then glueing into that a contrasting wood pin that does NOT yet attach to anything else, then cutting into the insert the other kind of joint into which a pin from the other plank that forms the joint fits. Example (dado to box):



coopered edge joint --- An edge miter joint that is made with a compound miter cut. Such joints are used to make barrels (thus the reference to cooperage in the name) but are also used to make planters or any other box-like construction that requires a changing width over the length.

coped --- Cut with a coping saw. This normally implies a curved cut. See also coped joint

coped joint --- Molding pieces that need to meet in a corner are normally cut with a miter cut (or a compound mitercut if needed), but there is an alternate method called the coped joint. In this technique, one of the pieces to be jointed is just cut at 90 degrees and the other is cut with a coping saw in a curve that matches the outline of the other piece and then the coped piece is just butted up against the other. One advantage of the coped joint over a mitered joint is that when movement in service causes contraction in the molding wood, a mitered joint makes the separation obvious but the overlapping edges of a coped joint do a much better job of hiding the separation. The illustration below shows both a coped joint and a mitered joint for quarter-round molding. Note that once assembled, the joints are indistinguishable.



coping saw --- A hand saw used to cut intricate curves and cutouts. It has a very thin blade, usually about a foot long, and usually about a 6 inch throat. It is widely used to cut dovetails and it is also used to make what are called (no surprise here) "coping" cuts in molding to create coped joints as opposed to miter joints. In a coping cut, the end of one piece of molding is cut to fit the shape of the surface of another piece of molding so that they go together differently than with a miter joint, in which the ends of both pieces of molding would be given a miter cut. There is another, very similar, saw that is designed for even more intricate work than the coping saw and that is the fret saw. Examples:



corner chisel --- A heavy joinery chisel that has a right-angle end and is used for cleaning out corner areas. There are really two forms of this. One (the one illustrated here) is a small chisel end embedded in a metal block and it is struck with a hammer or mallet. The chisel part is captive but moveable and usually has a spring that keeps it in place except while it is struck with the mallet. The other is a more normal joinery chisel with a long shank and a wooden handle; it is also struck with a mallet. The "normal chisel" type is called a bruzze and is illustrated with that term. Examples:



corner full lap --- A full lap joint where the two planks meet at right angles at their ends, rather than one mating into the middle of the other. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



corner half lap --- A half lap joint in which the two planks meet at right angles at their ends rather than one mating into the middle of the other. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



corner half lap with double dovetail --- A corner half lap joint in which the two planks meet at right angles at their ends but where the two laps are both cut at an angle to make them each a half dovetail. This is another one that is best explained by example, so here you go:



corner tongue and groove --- A joint that can''s very useful for joining table rails to the legs. Best shown by examples, so see below. Not shown is that this kind of joint is normally supported by a corner brace.



crossed edge full lap --- A crossed full lap joint where the two mating pieces are presented to each other edge to edge instead of face to face. Example:



crossed edge half lap --- A crossed half lap joint where the two mating pieces are presented to each other edge to edge instead of face to face. Examples:



crossed full lap --- A full lap joint where the two planks fully cross each other and are perpendicular to each other. If they cross at an angle other than 90 degrees, then the joint is called an angled full lap. Examples:



crossed half lap --- A half lap joint where the two planks fully cross each other and are perpendicular to each other. If they cross at an angle other than 90 degrees, then the joint is called an angled half lap. Examples:



crossed lap joint --- Any lap joint in which two planks (or sticks) fully cross one another. It can be a full lap joint or a half lap joint and it can be a perpendicular crossing or at an angle. Here are some standard crossed lap joints:

crown molding --- Molding that is designed to go over the joint between the walls and the ceiling of a room. Some definitions say that crown molding is any molding along a wall as long as (1) it is at or above eye level and (2) it is the highest molding in the room. Thus chair-rail molding would never be crown molding but a higher decorative strip around the wall would be crown molding if there was no molding above it. Weird, but that''ve never seen crown molding used to refer to anything other than the molding placed at the wall/ceiling juncture. Crown molding that goes in the wall/ceiling joint has to be cut with a compound miter cut at the corners. Here are examples of crown molding in various states:



curved dovetail --- This is a primarily decorative variation on the standard through dovetail joint. It is not quite as strong as the standard joint, and it is much more difficult to construct, but the curved dovetail look is quite striking and that''t use glue OR fasteners. The term is also applied a joint that WILL use glue and/or fasteners but which is at the moment just being fitted to make sure the wood edges meet accurately.

dutchman --- synonymous with butterfly

edge banding --- [noun] Veneer strips used to cover the exposed edges of panel products such as plywood or other composite material edges (for example, on face frames). Such veneer is usually available in rolls and is available both pre-glued and unglued. Wood strips, generally 1/4" and thicker, used for the same purpose, are sometimes also called edge banding, but should more properly be called edging. Edge banding is normally attached by use of an edge clamp
edge banding --- [verb] The process of putting on the material as described above.

edge full lap --- A full lap joint where the two mating pieces are presented to each other edge to edge instead of face to face. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



edge half lap --- A half lap joint where the two mating pieces are presented to each other edge to edge instead of face to face. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be half blind or through. Examples:



edge joint --- A joint made by bonding two pieces of wood together edge-to-edge, commonly by gluing. The joints may be made by gluing two squared edges as in a plain edge joint or by using machined joints of various kinds (e.g. tongued and grooved). A plain edge joint (with just flat abutted edges) is also called a butt joint.

edge miter cut --- see miter cut

edge miter joint --- A joint where the edge of one plank meets the edge of another plank at 90 degrees and each edge is cut with a (normally 45 degree) miter cut. Compare/contrast to edge rabbet. If reinforced with a spline, then the joint is a splined edge miter joint. Examples:



edge rabbet --- see rabbet

edge rabbet joint --- A joint that puts together two planks along their side edges, using a rabbet cut. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be blind, half blind, or through. Examples:



edgesplinejoint --- synonymous with splined edge miter joint

edge to edge butt joint --- see butt joint

end miter cut --- see miter cut

end miter joint --- A drawer type joint, where the end of one plank meets the face of another plank and the two are both cut with a (normally 45 degree) miter cut. Compare/contrast to case joint and end rabbet. Examples:



end rabbet --- see rabbet

end rabbet joint --- A joint that puts together two planks along their ends, using a rabbet cut. As can be seen in the examples below, the joint can be blind, half blind, or through. Examples:



end to edge butt joint --- see butt joint

end to end butt joint --- see butt joint

end to face butt joint --- see butt joint

end wedged mortise and tenon --- This is like a standard through mortise and tenon except that the mortise is reverse tapered (that is, it is tapered to be wider at the EXIT of the tenon than at the entrance, and then wedges are put in above and below the tenon. This provides a holding force on the tenon that will make the joint stronger than glue alone. Examples:



face frame --- A flat frame attached to the front of a cabinet, usually to conceal the exposed edges of the plywood at the front of the carcass and to give extra surface on which to mount doors. The face frame is generally made up of rails and stiles and has large openings for drawers, doors, etc. Examples:



face frame cabinet --- A cabinet that has a face frame. Compare/contrast to frameless cabinet. Example:



face frame door --- A door that is attached to a face frame cabinet. There are several chacteristics that distinguish types of face frame doors as listed directly below. Compare/contrast to frameless door. Examples of the various types (I note that several of the insert and beaded insert doors seem to have been photographed before installation of the door pull knobs --- overlay doors don''s just being picky), thus this particular type of spline is called a feather spline and the joint is called a feather spline joint. The joint is also called a keyed miter joint and there is an illustration with that term.

finger joint --- This term normally is synonymous with tapered finger joint. In fact, most folks just call the tapered finger joint a finger joint. BUT ... some people use the term finger joint to mean what is normally called a box joint.

finish carpentry --- The detail woodwork that will be visible when a project is completed. This includes door and window frames, moldings, base trims, chair rails, etc. Compare/contrast to framing.

flat spline joint --- synonymous with splined face miter joint

floating --- In woodworking this carries the connotation of "not fixed" (that is, not nailed / glued / screwed). Two places where it is used in particular are (1) in rail and stile construction where a panel sits loosely inside the rails and stiles so that movement caused by changes in relative humidity will not cause the wood to crack, and (2) in loose mortise and tenon where the meaning is slightly different and refers to the fact that the floating (aka "loose") tenon is not an integral part of one of the elements the way it normally is.

floating tenon --- synonymous with loose tenon

flush --- In woodworking, this word is used in its sense of "level with"; used to describe a situation where a the surfaces of two adjacent objects, or portions of an object, line up perfectly with each other. Compare/contrast to proud (above) and shy (below).

flush face frame door --- see face frame door

folding wedges --- This refers to a construct that uses two opposing wedges instead of one, for example in the "tusked mortise and tenon with folding wedges" joint. I have no idea how the term "folding" got into the name (I would called it "paired wedges" but as always, I don''t just jam the wedge in and then cut/sand off any excess. Examples:



frame joinery --- There are fundamentally two types of joinery: frame joinery and carcass joinery. Frame joinery is the art/science of constructing joints for frames (as opposed to carcasses). Frame joinery is used for doors, picture frames, face frames and so forth. Most joint types can be used for both frames and cases, but the types that are associated mostly with frames include lap joints, bridle joints, mortise and tenon, and tongue and groove.

frame joint --- Generally, a frame joint is any joint used in the construction of any type of frame (as opposed to carcass) but more specifically, the term is used to refer to a picture-frame style joint where the end of one plank is butted up against the edge of another plank to form a corner. The joint can be just glued, or it could be reinforced with biscuits, dowels, or splines. It can be a butt joint or mitered. Examples:



frameless cabinet --- A cabinet that does not have a face frame and that therefore has the edges of the carcass exposed when the door is open. Compare/contrast to face frame cabinet. Example:



full lap joint --- A joint style in which two planks cross each other, fully or partially, and grooves are cut in one, with the other being the thickness of that groove, so that their face surfaces are flush when they mate. There are numerous types of full lap joints, depending on whether the planks cross totally or partially, whether they cross at right angles or some other angle, whether the cross in the middle or at the corners, and so forth. Many types of full lap joints are discussed and illustrated in this glossary under the terms listed below. The basic forms are illustrated directly below the list. Compare/contrast to half lap joint.



full overlay face frame door --- see face frame door

glue joint --- (1) A joint that uses adhesive instead of nails or screws. Compare/contrast to dry joint.
glue joint --- (2) The location at which two objects are held together with glue.
glue joint --- (3) Although any joint that is fastened with glue can be called a glue joint, the term more specifically means a joint that has been given more surface area by some manner of cutting or routing, so as to give the glue more holding area. There are numerous router bits that serve this purpose; here is one example, and if you look carefully you will see that this bit has a characteristic that is typical of such bits which is that if you line up the bit and the plank just right, you can make both passes on the same bit. That is, you cut two planks on their edges and then you flip one of them over and it fits into the other with both faces flush. In addition to providing more surface area for the glue, this kind of routing also provides greatly added shear strength at the joint.



groove --- (1)[noun] A long narrow channel cut in wood. In wood carving, this might be any cross section including "V" shaped, "U" shaped, rectangular, and others; in wood joint terms, it has a rectangular cross section and is also called a dado, and if it is cut parallel to the grain, it can also be called a plough cut, and if cut along the edge or end, it is called a rabbet. For a full explication of joinery groove terms, see JOINERY GROOVES. See also tongue and groove.
groove --- (2)[noun] A surface treatment on a textured plywood panel in which a series of narrow, parallel channels, usually "V" shaped, are cut into the surface so that the panel looks like a series of mated planks.
groove --- (3)[verb] To cut a channel of the type(s) described in (1) and (2) above.

half blind --- see half blind joint

half blind angled dovetailed full lap --- see angled dovetailed full lap

half blind angled dovetailed half lap --- see angled dovetailed half lap

half blind angled full lap --- see angled full lap

half blind angled half lap --- see angled half lap

half blind angled keyed dovetail full lap --- see angled keyed dovetail full lap

half blind angled keyed dovetail half lap --- see angled keyed dovetail half lap

half blind bridle joint --- see bridle joint

half blind corner full lap --- see corner full lap

half blind corner half lap --- see corner full lap

half blind dado --- A dado joint where the groove does not go all the way from one edge of the face to the other edge but rather is stopped before reaching one edge. Also called a "stopped" dado. The cut can go along the grain or across the grain, but if it goes along the grain, there is a more specific name, plough. Compare/contrast to blind dado and through dado. Examples:



half blind dovetail --- A dovetail joint where either the pins or the tails do not go all the way through one side of the mating pieces. Usually the construction is such that the pins go through and the tails do not, but this is not always the case. This half blind construction gives the strength of a dovetail but allows one face to stay clear so that a drawer front, for example, can show an unblemished face.

The terminology here is widely misused in that this joint, that is, the half blind dovetail described in this entry and pictured below, is frequently called a "blind dovetail", which is not technically correct. There IS a true blind dovetail, as I present in this glossary, but it is so onerous to construct and so infrequently used, that the terminology has slipped and the term blind is often used for what is really the half blind dovetail. Compare/contrast to blind dovetail and through dovetail joint. Examples:



half blind dovetail bridle joint --- see dovetail bridle joint

half blind dovetailed full lap --- See dovetailed fulllap

half blind dovetailed half lap --- See dovetailed half lap

half blind edge full lap --- see edge full lap

half blind edge half lap --- see edge half lap

half blind edge rabbet --- see edge rabbet joint

half blind end rabbet --- see end rabbet joint

half blind full lap --- see full lap joint

half blind half lap --- see half lap joint

half blind joint --- Describes a joint, such as a dado joint, which could go from one edge of a board to the other but instead is stopped before reaching one edge. This is half way between a blind joint which doesn''t show it in the examples below, it is very common for there to be decorative (but also functional of course) pins inserted into each of the fingers. Examples:



haunch --- An extra piece added to a tenon to give additional support against twisting forces. The haunch is normally added above the tenon but there''t be added below the tenon if that''s mouth joint (rafter notch). NOTE: I have found definitions that use the term "heel cut" as being synonymous with "bird''s the first type of joint and two of the more common ones of the second type:





Japanese joints --- This refers to joints that are very intricate and require great skill and patience. Although, as I understand it, these joints are a normal part of joinery in Japan, they are not much used in the USA. An example of such a joint is the triple miter joint.

joiner --- A woodworker who specializes in the construction of building components such as windows, doors and stairs, where the creation of good-fitting joints is very important. The objects created by a joiner are called finish carpentry.

joinery --- At the fundamental level, joinery just means creating joints between pieces of wood, but the term carries with it a connotation of fine woodworking and the creation of subtle joints that make good use of craftsmanship and woodworking skill, not just saws and nails. Nailing a couple of two-by-fours together is not joinery, creating elegant and virtually seamless dovetail joints is. In a secondary sense, it means the creation of joints in wood without the use of nails (or other metal fasteners), joints which hold together by a combination of adhesive and interlocking pieces in the edges of the pieces of wood. In a broader sense, the term is used as synonymous with cabinetry, which goes beyond just making joints. There are fundamentally two types of joinery, frame joinery and carcass joinery.

joinery chisel --- A chisel that is used to create and/or clean out a groove of some sort that is part of a joint. These, particularly the mortise chisel, tend to be stronger and stiffer than carving chisels. They often are cranked chisels. Examples

need to add joinery chisel pics


joint --- (1) The edge where two touching members or components come together
joint --- (2) The space between two touching members. One of the goals of joinery is to have clean, tight joints that are invisible, or as nearly so as possible.
joint --- (3) A type of cigarette. After smoking such a cigarette, one should avoid power tools and adhesives.

types of joints and joint-related terms: